# Materials

This page contains references and materials on the topics taught in the course. There are many, many courses covering mathematical logic: if you find interesting resources not listed here, please open an issue on Github, so that we can improve this page.

## Online Tools

- LogicTools on Datascientia local instance of the Logic Tools, where you can have PL and FOL problems solved. The tools are more relevant for PL than for FOL.
- Tree Proof Generator builds Tableaux for PL and FOL.

## Materials covering topics taught in CL-2020

You might try using these materials to get a different approach to explaining the topics we cover in the course. Notice that these materials might not cover topics we cover in CL-2020 and, viceversa, explore topics we are not covering in this course.

- Introduction to AI at Cornell as a lesson dedicated to FOL, which includes a very short tutorial on Prolog.
- First-Order Logic -Syntax, Semantics, Resolution is another introduction to FOL in the form of slides.
- The Seminar on Automated Reasoning at TUM has material to read on various topics, including Tableaux for FOL.
- The Logic Notes pages focuses on (natural) deduction, but it has a lesson on Tableaux.
- First-Order Tableau is a chapter from a book, probably, covering Tableaux for FOL.
- Tableeuax for first order logic at the University of Roma is a step-by-step example of Tableaux with term substitution. Part of the Planning and reasoning course by Paolo Liberatore.

A very detailed and clear discussion about the formalization of constraints on terms satisfying a formula (exactly …, at most …, execpt …):

- More about Quantification at the University of Washington (Full set of lecture notes).

## Exercises on topics covered in CL-2020

- Introduction to Logic is a blog and course on logic, with highlights on logical fallacies in informal reasoning. It also has various interesting exercises on informal to formal: I2F for PL and I2F for FOL.
- Exercises on satisfiability and Exercises on PL, FOL, Set Theory
- The Logic in Computer Science (COMP118) course has various exercises, which you can find, for instance, here: Lecture 4, Tutorial 1, Test 1. If you are interested in the topic, you might also have a look at the Material page, where you can find some nice resources.

The following focus on Modal Logic and Description Logic:

- Mathematical Logic Exercises at DISI covers everything, including ML and DL
- Description Logic at TUD
- DL Exercises at Libre Books
- Modal Logics at UNIBZ
- The Little Logic Book at Calvin
- Phil 511 at UMASS, Exercises see also: http://people.umass.edu/klement/511/
- Basic Modal Logic

## Moodle page for CL-2020

- This is useful only for Adolfo, since he always forgets where the course lives: https://didatticaonline.unitn.it/dol/enrol/index.php?id=24456

## Books

A very nice website is:

- Open Logic Project which collects many resources and textbooks covering logic.

They might have exercises at the end of each chapter:

- Introduction to Mathematical Logic (Elliott Mendelson)
- A Concise IntroductiontoMathematical Logic (Wolfgang Rautenberg)